Hoover Dam, Ragtown and Dingbat Houses

Hoover Dam - June 2014   (9)

By Judy Berman

What would drive a man to take his family across the country and set up in a squatters’ camp in the desert where the average temperature was 116 degrees?

The three D’s: Desperation, the “Dust Bowl” and the (Great) Depression. During the 1930s, thousands fled to whatever Promised Land offered a job.

A drought turned their land into a “Dust Bowl” and rendered it useless to grow crops and to make a living. This forced thousands to leave their homes in a five-state region of the Great Plains in search of work.

“On October 29, 1929 – Black Tuesday – the stock market crashed, plunging the United States into the Great Depression. By 1933, one out of every three Americans was living in poverty. Thousands lined up to apply for a handful of available jobs,” Boulder City/Hoover Dam Museum Permanent Exhibit. (Exhibit 2: Welcome to Hard Times)

Two years before construction began on Hoover Dam in 1931, the area near Las Vegas was flooded with job-seekers.

They lived in Ragtown, a makeshift shantytown on the floor of the Black Canyon next to the Colorado River. Their “homes” were made of tents, cardboard boxes, tin scraps and anything that amounted to shelter from the scorching heat.

“When somebody … became overcome with the heat, we dashed out there with these ice buckets and we’d pack them in ice. If their heart took it and they survived, OK. But if their heart stopped, that was it. We sent for the undertaker,” Bob Parker. (museum’s Exhibit 4: A Deadly Desert Place)

Boulder City - cottages built by Six Companies, Inc. - save

Six Companies Inc., a “supercompany” made up of six construction firms, agreed to build the dam for just under $49 million. The Boulder Canyon Project authorized Hoover Dam for flood control, improved navigation and regulation of the Colorado River.

Temporary housing was built in Boulder City for those who would work on the dam.

The homes – 658 of them – were called “dingbat” houses because of the quick and shoddy way they were constructed. The boxy homes had a living room, a bedroom and a bathroom.

Two men could throw one together in about 12 hours.

They looked so much alike that it wasn’t uncommon to wake up and find a stranger sleeping on the couch. When he was awakened, he’d look around bewildered, get up and head for home.

“The dingbat houses were a great improvement over the squatters’ camp, but the ragged construction style created hazards of its own. Dust blew in thru the cracks in the walls and doorways, piling up against the houses, creating small dunes throughout the neighborhood,” according to “Boulder City,” a PBS documentary.

Boulder City - bus to transport workers to Hoover Dam - save

Despite the hardships at home and the hazards of dynamite blasts at work, the workers at Six Companies completed Hoover Dam two years ahead of schedule and well under budget, says U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Restoration.

Their work created an engineering marvel that draws millions of tourists a year. Some staggering facts (U.S. Department of Interior Department of Reclamation):

Hoover Dam - June 2014   (7)

  • Hoover Dam is 726 feet tall. That’s 171 feet taller than the Washington Monument in Washington D.C.
  • At its base, Hoover Dam is as thick (660 feet) as two footballs fields measured end-to-end.
  • Lake Mead, the largest reservoir in the USA, contains enough water to flood the entire state of New York with 1 foot of water (26 million acre feet).
  • Between 1931 and 1936 when the dam was built, 96 men were killed in industrial accidents. None were buried in the concrete.

Hoover Dam - mascot

COPYRIGHT NOTICE: Judy Berman and earthrider, 2011-14. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to (Judy Berman) and (earthrider, earth-rider.com, or earthriderdotcom) with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Source: Boulder City/Hoover Dam Museum – http://www.bcmha.org/

Source: Hoover Dam, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation

Source: Boulder City – PBS. http://www.pbs.org/bouldercity/script.htm

1. Main Photo: Hoover Dam Tour Center, Nevada – mural of construction workers – June 5, 2014, by Judy Berman

2. Photo: Boulder City – cottages built by Six Companies Inc.: Department of the Interior. Bureau of Reclamation. Engineering and Research Center – April 1, 1932  http://research.archives.gov/description/293623

3. Photo: Boulder City – bus to transport workers to Hoover Dam, capacity 150 men:Department of the Interior. Bureau of Reclamation. Engineering and Research Center – July 27, 1933   http://research.archives.gov/description/293924

4. Photo: Hoover Dam – June 5, 2014, by Judy Berman

5. Photo: Hoover Dam – mascot – memorial to dog beloved by the construction workers at Hoover Dam. Taken – April 13, 2012. Filed in wikimedia.org. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/73/Hoover_Dam%2C_Wikiexp_21.jpg/640px-Hoover_Dam%2C_Wikiexp_21.jpg   Used with permission by photographer: Adam Kliczek, http://zatrzymujeczas.pl (CC-BY-SA-3.0)

Grapes of Wrath

Migrant Mother - Florence Owens Thompson - 1936

By Judy Berman

My role model is a paroled prisoner, an unrepentant killer.

After four years in prison on a manslaughter charge, his concerns were only for “today.”

Time and life’s experiences shifted Tom Joad’s focus from selfish self-interest to helping others in John Steinbeck’s “The Grapes of Wrath.”

He is one of the reasons I root for the underdog – personally and when I was a reporter.

The politics and social injustice that existed when the book was written have changed. But the book still resonates 75 years after its publication on April 14, 1939.

Like many families in the 1930s, during the Great Depression, the Joads are forced to leave Oklahoma. A drought turns their land into a “Dust Bowl” and renders it useless to grow crops and to make a living.

Landowners and banks evicted tenant farmers. Some homes are torn down by tractors, leaving residents with nowhere to go.

They’re told that there are jobs in California. Before they can get to the Promised Land, they are taken advantage of by crooked car salesmen and dishonest pawnbrokers when they try to sell their belongings to pay for transportation and for their trip.

Migrant worker's family, Nipomo, California

Defeated, they pack what possessions they can and drive down Route 66 in rickety cars and trucks to California where they – and thousands of others – head to migrant camps in search of work.

Life on the road is hard and fraught with danger. The Joads and others are treated with hostility because so many Okies are flooding into California and there’s not enough work for them. Some are starving.

Ma Joad, the family’s strength, believes that helping others will be rewarded. While there is greed, she has also witnessed kindness from strangers. She repays that by feeding some of the starving migrant children at the camp.

Early on, Tom Joad and Jim Casy, a family friend and ex-preacher, begin to wonder why the tenant farmers aren’t organizing a union to fight the injustices of poverty wages and harsh treatment at migrant camps.

They’re told that if they do organize a protest that they will be black-listed from the camps. That means they’ll never find work.

When the Joads settle in at the Weedpatch camp, a government-sponsored place, it appears their luck has changed for the better. But trouble still follows them.

A Farmers’ Association plans to sabotage the camp. They fear that the Okies are a threat to their way of life.

Work is again hard to find. The migrant workers are paid far less than promised and it’s not enough to feed their families. Casy urges them to strike.

Their protest is met with violence and motivates Tom to work for the community’s good. He’s on the run.

Ma Joad fears she won’t see him again. Before they part, Tom comforts her and vows to continue to fight injustice wherever he finds it.

Grapes of Wrath - Henry Fonda - DVD cover

“I’ll be all aroun’ in the dark. I’ll be everywhere – wherever you look. Wherever they’s a fight so hungry people can eat, I’ll be there. Wherever they’s a cop beatin’ up a guy, I’ll be there. If Casy knowed, why, I’ll be in the way guys yell when they’re mad an’ – I’ll be in the way kids laugh when they’re hungry ‘n’ they know supper’s ready. An’ when our folks eat the stuff they raise an’ live in the houses they build – why, I’ll be there.”

My colleagues at the Observer Dispatch in Utica, New York, paraphrased that quote to reflect on my career at the paper.

It’s a comparison I’ll cherish always.

COPYRIGHT NOTICE: Judy Berman and earthrider, 2011-14. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to (Judy Berman) and (earthrider, earth-rider.com, or earthriderdotcom) with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Movie clip – Grapes of Wrath (1940) – Famous “I’ll Be There” speech in the movie by Tom Joad (Henry Fonda)   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i2JR3FmvVAw  

Video – John Steinbeck and Grapes of Wrath – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xqaTv8cCWeg  

Photo – Migrant Mother (1936) – Florence Owens Thompson – (Destitute pea pickers in California. Mother of seven children. Age thirty-two. Nipomo, California.) Photo by Dorothea Lange, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service.http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/54/Lange-MigrantMother02.jpg/461px-Lange-MigrantMother02.jpg

Photo – Migrant worker’s family – Photography of Florence Owens Thompson, known as “Migrant Mother”, Pea-Pickers Camp, Nipomo, California.  Photo taken 1936 by Dorothea Lange http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/ca/Migrant_agricultural_worker%27s_family%2C_Nipomo%2C_California_ppmsca03054u.jpg/754px-Migrant_agricultural_worker%27s_family%2C_Nipomo%2C_California_ppmsca03054u.jpg

Photo – Grapes of Wrath (1940) – Henry Fonda as Tom Joad – DVD cover

 

 

The Safe Haven

Refugees registering at Fort Ontario's refugee camp

Refugees registering at Fort Ontario’s refugee camp

By Judy Berman

An Army post dating back to the 1700s served a peaceful and humanitarian purpose during the last two years of its life. But few knew of the role that Fort Ontario in Oswego, New York, played in sheltering refugees.

The fort became the only refugee center in America during World War II. It was a safe haven for nearly 1,000 men, women and children fleeing Hitler’s march across Europe. Of 3,000 who applied, just 982 refugees (874 were Jews, the rest were Christian) from 18 different countries were offered shelter at the fort.

Ray Harding was 8 years old when he and his family first came to America in 1944. They were Yugoslavian refugees who had been in a concentration camp in Italy that was liberated by the British. He viewed his 18-month stay at Fort Ontario as idyllic.

“The shelter in Oswego represented hope. It was a haven, a new life in the United States, a hand being reached across the sea by the United States,” Harding told me in an interview when I was a reporter at WHEN-AM radio in Syracuse, N.Y. (Born Branko Hochwald, Harding became a Liberal Party power broker in New York. He died in August 2012.)

President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s decision to provide a safe haven changed not only the lives of the refugees who stayed there, but also the small community they lived in during the remainder of the war.

Aug. 5 marked the 69th anniversary of the fort’s role in the refugee relocation during WWII. Even though I lived about 35 miles from Oswego, I was never aware of its link to history until shortly before I did these interviews.

Manya Breuer, who survived five concentration camps, told me the fort was a welcome relief from her family’s life on the run.

“It was the beginning of a new life. It was coming from Hell into Heaven,” she said, referring to what is now called the Safe Haven.

But she felt guilty being among those selected.

“Here I was from so many, many people chosen to come to the United States, and beginning a new life again. When I think about it, it hurts me. Why is it that the rest didn’t have a chance?” she said.

Not all, initially, felt this way. “They were greatly disturbed by the chain-link fence with barbed wire on top and military police at the gate,” said Dr. Willard Schum, founding president and board member of the Safe Haven Museum and Education Center.

Ruth Gruber who helped the refugees relocate in Oswego, N.Y.

Ruth Gruber who helped the refugees relocate in Oswego, N.Y.

Ruth Gruber, who worked with the U.S. Secretary of Interior to help the refugees relocate, told them that all army installations had fences.

“(Some) didn’t believe me, and they were really terrified. It brought back all the memories of everything they’d escaped from. But others saw the fence as safety.”

Gruber said the schools in Oswego welcomed those in the shelter. Some of the children had never been to school.

“There was a 15-year-old girl from Germany who had been running since 1933. The day she went to school, she said: ‘I never believed in my life that I would go to school, that I would sit in a classroom.’” The girl grew up to be an artist.

Oswego residents did open their heart to the new arrivals. They brought the refugees food and clothing, and passed it over the fence. A former city mayor, Bill Cahill, remembered biking to the shelter and bringing candy to the refugees.

Housing and education were easy to resolve. Another concern was where they would go once the war ended. That was settled after the war came to an end. They were permitted to become American citizens.

Ruth Gruber's "Haven" - the story of nearly 1,000 refugees who found a safe haven in the U.S. during WWII.

Dr. Schum said he wished more could have found asylum in the United States during WWII. But there were ships that were turned away that had Jewish refugees aboard. They were not allowed to land.

He noted that of the roughly 1,000 people at the refugee center, there were doctors and lawyers who made their mark in this country. One scientist helped develop the CAT scan, another worked dismantling atomic weapons in Russia for the American government.

“What could we have done if we had opened our gates to more,” Dr. Schum said in a video made by The Post-Standard in Syracuse, N.Y. (Link below)

Many hope that the Safe Haven will remind people what the refugees went thru before they came to America’s shores, and that this tragedy will never be repeated.

Sad to say … it has. Genocide has taken place in many countries and regions, including: Rwanda, Bosnia, Uganda, Darfur and Syria.

COPYRIGHT NOTICE: Judy Berman and earthrider, 2011-14. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to (Judy Berman) and (earthrider, earth-rider.com, or earthriderdotcom) with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Photo: Refugees – Registering at the Fort Ontario Refugee Camp, Oswego, New York – 1944. Author: Department of the Interior, War Relocation Authority, Fort Ontario Emergency Refugee Shelter (1944-1946) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/14/Refugees_Registering_at_the_Fort_Ontario_Refugee_Camp%2C_Oswego%2C_New_York%2C_08-1944.jpg/604px-Refugees_Registering_at_the_Fort_Ontario_Refugee_Camp%2C_Oswego%2C_New_York%2C_08-1944.jpg

Safe Haven Museum – http://www.safehavenmuseum.com/about.html

Photo: Ruth Gruber – The Haven and Ruth Gruber – War Department

Video: Ruth Gruber was a woman of firsts. This fascinating short film (7 minutes) includes the nearly 1,000 refugees who she helped relocate at Fort Ontario, Oswego, New York. She will be 102 on Sept. 30, 2013. http://www.aheadoftimethemovie.com/trailer.html

Imagine a Time for Peace

The Christmas Truce of 1914: German and British soldiers stand together in No Man's Land on the Western Front

The Christmas Truce of 1914: German and British soldiers stand together in No Man’s Land on the Western Front

By Judy Berman

A narrow stretch of land was all that separated the soldiers. Sometimes, the trenches the British and the Germans fought in during World War I were only 200 yards apart. That space in between was known as “No Man’s Land.”

They were so close they could hear each other’s conversations. On Christmas Day 1914, many on both sides began to sing Christmas carols to each other.

Then, they did the unthinkable. They exchanged gifts of cigarettes and plum puddings. This Christmas Truce lasted just a few days.

One British soldier, Staff Sgt. Clement Barker, wrote to his brother on Dec. 28, 1914, from the trenches of Ypres (in Belgium), about the temporary cease-fire.

Barker’s letter, found 98 years after this event, is quoted Dec. 24, 2012, in the online Daily and Sunday Express: “So, in the morning (Christmas Day), a German looked over the trench – no shots – our man did the same, and then a few of our men went out and brought the dead in (69) and buried them, and the next thing happened a football kicked out of our trenches, and Germans and English played football (soccer).”

Many of the soldiers, curious about the unseen enemy, “were surprised to discover that they were more alike than” they thought.

This could be the setting of John Lennon’s song, “Imagine,” written in 1971.

Lennon asks us to imagine a time of peace when people put aside their differences, when there are no barriers between us, when we are not divided by our different faiths or politics. Instead of focusing on material possessions, Lennon said we should focus on humanity throughout the world.

Author John Blarney wrote that “Lennon contends that global harmony is within our reach, but only if we reject the mechanisms of social control that restrict human potential.”

This British infantry unit fights in a trench that is within 200 yards of German lines. (1914)

This British infantry unit fights in a trench that is within 200 yards of German lines. (1914)

For a few days in 1914, in several spots consumed by war, soldiers put aside their differences.

“The so-called Christmas Truce of 1914 came only five months after the outbreak of a war in Europe and was one of the last examples of the outdated notion of chivalry between enemies in warfare. It was never repeated … but it served as heartening proof, however brief, that beneath the brutal clash of  weapons, the soldiers’ essential humanity endured,” according to history.com.

That scenario, played out nearly 60 years before “Imagine” was written, makes Lennon’s dream seem less distant. More real.

“Imagine all the people
Living life in peace.
You, you may say
I’m a dreamer, but I’m not the only one.
I hope someday you’ll join us
And the world will be as one.”  

For now, I can only imagine.

Video – The Christmas Truce – 

Music Video – John Lennon singing “Imagine.”  

COPYRIGHT NOTICE: Judy Berman and earthrider, 2011-14. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to (Judy Berman) and (earthrider, earth-rider.com, or earthriderdotcom) with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Main Photo: The Christmas Truce – 1914: German soldiers of the 134th Saxon Regiment photographed with men of the Royal Warwickshire Regiment in “No Man’s Land” on the Western Front. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Christmas_Truce_1914_IWM_HU_35801.jpg

Letter found from soldier in “No Man’s Land” Truce – 98 years later. http://www.express.co.uk/posts/view/366837/98-years-on-letter-found-from-soldier-in-no-man-s-land-truce

Photo: Christmas Truce – British soldiers fighting in trenches: Illustrating the closeness of enemy lines, this British infantry unit fights from a trench that is within 200 yards of German lines. (Photo Credit: Bettmann/CORBIS) http://www.history.com/topics/christmas-truce-of-1914/photos#

Lincoln – a Country Divided. Again.

President Lincoln and General George B. McClellan in the general’s tent at Antietam, Maryland. Oct. 3, 1862

By Judy Berman

“The man with fourteen days to live is himself witnessing death.”

This is the opening line of “Killing Lincoln,” by Bill O’Reilly and Martin Dugard. Within six weeks after Abraham Lincoln was sworn into office for his second term, shortly before the close of the Civil War, he was the first U.S. president to be assassinated in office.

Steven Spielberg’s movie, “Lincoln,” focuses on efforts to pass the Emancipation Proclamation, the 13th amendment to the U.S. Constitution that would abolish slavery. The book has a different focus. It reads like a thriller that counts down the remaining days of Lincoln’s presidency.

Some deride those who now want to secede from the United States, following the re-election of President Barack Obama. Such talk is no laughing matter. During Lincoln’s presidency, when our country was deeply divided, some – perhaps connected to the highest ranks in our government – attempted drastic and violent measures to alter the direction of our country.

Five days after Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee surrendered his Army of Northern Virginia, Lincoln was gunned down on April 14, 1865, by actor and Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth. Lincoln died early the next morning.

Lincoln was not Booth’s only target. Booth and his conspirators also plotted to kill Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, Lincoln’s general-in-chief of the Union army.

“Rather than just kill Lincoln and Grant, he now plans to do nothing less than undertake a top-down destruction of the government of the United States of America,” the authors write in “Killing Lincoln.”

Vice President Andrew Johnson and Secretary of State William H. Seward also are on the hit list.

“There are rumors that General Grant will be in town. If he attends the theater with Lincoln … Booth can kill the two most prominent architects of the South’s demise within seconds,” according to “Killing Lincoln.”

Booth also despises Vice President Johnson. He “views the Tennessee politician as a turncoat for siding with Lincoln.” Secretary of State William H. Seward also has angered Confederate sympathizers for his “oppressive policies toward the South.”

Lincoln had opposition from all sides – Radical Republicans and War Democrats – as he tried to reunite the country and bring an end to slavery. He wanted the reconciliation with the South to be one of compromise and understanding.

President Abraham Lincoln – 1862

Secessionists, who wanted to break away from the U.S. government, plotted Lincoln’s death. Booth killed Lincoln. But the other intended victims eluded death and the conspirators were eventually caught.

The book and the movie on Lincoln’s death serve as a reminder that we must be vigilant in order to protect our country. Tommy Lee Jones, who played Sen. Thaddeus Stevens, a radical Republican abolitionist, in “Lincoln,” said the movie “gives you an opportunity to think about the fact that politics is still dirty. And that great things are done by people, working hard.”

We’re a diverse nation and we’ve weathered difficult times before. When we work together, we can achieve great things.

Official full movie trailer (2:21 min.) 

COPYRIGHT NOTICE: Judy Berman and earthrider, 2011-14. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to (Judy Berman) and (earthrider, earth-rider.com, or earthriderdotcom) with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Main Photo: President Abraham Lincoln and Gen. George B. McClellan in the general’s tent at Antietam, Maryland, October 3, 1862. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lincoln_and_McClellan_1862-10-03.jpg

Photo: President Abraham Lincoln – 1862 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lincoln_O-60_by_Brady,_1862.jpg

Lincoln’s final days http://www.history.com/topics/abraham-lincoln-assassination

The Transformation of Frankenstein

Boris Karloff as the monster in James Whale’s movie, “Frankenstein.”

By Judy Berman

Rain seemed to be a constant companion, confining friends for days at a time in Switzerland. Lord Byron challenged them to write a ghost story.

Mary Shelley, wife of Romantic poet Percy Bysshe Shelley, accepted the challenge. She was the only one in the group who actually finished her tale, a macabre story about a gruesome fiend. When Shelley breathed life into Frankenstein’s monster, it’s doubtful that she could foresee that her creation would spawn so many spin-offs of the wretched form she first conceived when she was 18.

In her novel, first published in 1818, there is no hunchback assistant, no criminal brain, no electrical equipment, and no angry villagers with torches who chase the monster. Those were added by director James Whale in the 1931 classic movie Frankenstein, and those were the parts that were spoofed in director Mel Brooks’ comedy, Young Frankenstein, in 1974.

Where did Shelley’s repugnant creature spring from? She listened as her friends talked about the most recent bizarre medical experiments and their speculation on whether a corpse could be reanimated.

Frankenstein’s Castle, built in the 10th century, in Germany.

“My imagination, unbidden, possessed and guided me,” the author said. When she awoke, Shelley opened her eyes in terror.

“I saw the hideous phantasm of a man stretched out, and then, on the working of some powerful engine, show signs of life and stir with an uneasy, half-vital motion. Frightful must it be, for supremely frightful would be the effect of any human endeavour to mock the stupendous mechanism of the Creator of the world.”

Her “daemon” – monster – was hideous to look at, became uglier because of society’s rejection of him, traveled with great speed, and he never shut up. The monster would go on and on about what he had endured and explained his evil acts as retribution for being an outcast. With actor Boris Karloff’s monster, there is silence in Whale’s first movie. In Young Frankenstein, actor Peter Boyle’s monster learns the gift of gab and much more with hilarious results.

Dr. Frankenstein worked in isolation when he created the “daemon” in Shelley’s novel. By the time the monster hit the silver screen, however, the doctor had an assistant. But in Whale’s film, and in Brooks’, the assistants – both hunchbacks  – bring back an “abnormal brain.” The difference? In Brooks’ film, Igor, played by Marty Feldman, is unaware that he has a hump on his back. Or, that the hump switches from side to side.

Brooks’ monster also gets to show his gentler side. Gene Wilder (as Dr. Frankenstein) tries to reassure the villagers that his creation is a “cultured, sophisticated man about town.” Out comes the monster and Wilder, in tux and tails, as they do a song and dance routine to “Sitting on the Ritz.” All goes well until a fuse blows and scares the monster. Then, an angry mob puts him in chains.

Boyle escapes. Dr. Frankenstein (Wilder) feels responsibility for his creation and wants to save him. He decides to have a transference operation. Before it is complete, the mob breaks in. The monster, now able to speak eloquently, tells them why he has behaved badly. The mob is properly chastised and apologizes.

There are unintended consequences for your character when you hit Hollywood. In a way, all three versions – Shelley’s novel, Whale’s film, and Brooks’ spoof – send us the same message: science has a social responsibility. It’s just that Hollywood’s versions played out better for Dr. Frankenstein, Elizabeth – and in Brooks’ movie – his creation.

Let’s just hope that society gets the intended message of the cosmic theme of man’s limits and the dangerous risks that arise when man tries to emulate God.

COPYRIGHT NOTICE: Judy Berman and earthrider, 2011-14. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to (Judy Berman) and (earthrider, earth-rider.com, or earthriderdotcom) with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Photo: Frankenstein – Promotional photo of Boris Karloff as Frankenstein’s monster from “The Bride of Frankenstein,” 1935. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Frankenstein%27s_monster_(Boris_Karloff).jpg

Photo: Frankenstein’s Castle – The castle, built in the 10th century, is in the town of Darmstadt, half an hour away from Frankfurt in Hesse region of Germany. Photo: by Yamy, Sept. 23, 2011 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/32/Castelul_Frankenstein.jpg/640px-Castelul_Frankenstein.jpg

Video – movie trailer “Young Franenstein” directed by Mel Brooks  

Do You Want to Know a Secret?

Navajo Code Talkers

Navajo Code Talkers, Saipan, June 1944

By Judy Berman

Decoding secret messages is a plot device in some mystery novels. In real life, it can mean the difference between life and death.

In Bram Stoker’s 1897 Gothic novel, “Dracula,” law clerk Jonathan Harker writes in shorthand to his fiancée back in England. He suspects he is a prisoner in Count Dracula’s Transylvania castle.

Dracula, cannot decipher the shorthand, which is a system of symbols used to take notes rapidly by hand. He intercepts them before leaving for England. Harker remains at the castle, at the mercy of Dracula’s “brides,” until Harker escapes.

The 2004 children’s art mystery, “Chasing Vermeer,” by Blue Balliett, used a pentomino code. Two sixth-graders, Calder Pillay and Petra Andalee, work to break the code so that they can recover a stolen Vermeer, “A Lady Writing.” A code is hidden in illustrations throughout the book.

A pentomino is one of the 12 plane figures that can be formed by joining five squares together side-to-side. The 12 different pentominoes are named after the letters of the Latin alphabet they resemble.

It was a code of a different sort that was used to save lives during World War II. It consisted of 211 words. Members of an ancient nation, whose language few understood, transmitted secret tactical messages and instructions. The people who spoke this language were called “The Navajo Code Talkers.”

“Code talking, however, was pioneered by Choctaw Indians serving in the U.S. Army during World War I,” according to Wikipedia. They served alongside the British during the second battle of the Somme in 1918.

During World War II, Philip Johnson proposed using the Navajo as code talkers to the U.S. Marines. He was not a Navajo, but grew up on a Navajo reservation as the son of a missionary, and he spoke their language fluently.

“Johnson’s report stressed the complexity of the Navajo language and the fact that it remained mostly ‘unwritten’ because an alphabet or other symbols of purely native origin did not exist,” according to the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Plus, the languages of Native American tribes varied so greatly that one tribe could not understand another.

It’s estimated that about 400 Native American Marines acted as code talkers for the U.S. Marine Corps.

Code Talkers Monument in Ocala, Florida Memorial Park

Some of the Navajo translations were verbatim. Others “were Navajo terms that had been imbued with new, distinctly military means in order to compensate for the lack of military terminology in the Navajo vocabulary. For example, ‘fighter plane’ was called ‘da-ha-tih-hi,’ which means ‘humming bird’ in Navajo, and ‘dive bomber’ was called ‘gini,’ which means ‘chicken hawk,’ ” according to the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration.

Some who served alongside these “walking secret code talkers” credited them in the Marines’ success in taking Iwo Jima. But the program went unrecognized until it was declassified in 1968. President Ronald Reagan gave the code talkers a Certification of Recognition in 1982. In 2001, the first 29 code talkers received the Congressional Gold Medal. Other Navajo, who later qualified to be code talkers in WW II, were given the Congressional Silver Medal.

The Japanese had attempted to decipher the code after they captured a Navajo sergeant, Joe Kieyoomia, in the Philippines in 1942 during the Bataan Death March. But Kieyoomia had not been trained in the code talk. Efforts to “persuade” him failed.

The spoken code was never cracked.

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Main Photo: Navajo Code Talkers, Saipan, June 1944 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Navajo_Code_Talkers.jpg

Photo: First 29 U.S. Marine Corps code-talker recruits being sworn in at Fort Wingate, N.M. http://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:(First_29_Navajo_U.S._Marine_Corps_code-talker_recruits_being_sworn_in_at_Fort_Wingate,_NM.)_-_NARA_-_295175.tif&page=1

Photo: Code Talkers – Navajo – Monument, Ocala, Fla. – Memorial Park http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ad/Code_Talkers.jpg/640px-Code_Talkers.jpg

Video: Code Talkers – This is a music video about the Navajo Code Talkers involvement at the Battle of Iwo Jima in World War II.  (about 4 min. 33 sec.)

Video: A small band of warriors created an unbreakable code from the ancient language of the Navajo people and change the course of modern history. (The Official Website of the Navajo Code Talkers) http://www.navajocodetalkers.org

Video: True Whispers: The Story of the Navajo Code Talkers | PBS (56 min. 11 sec.) http://www.iptv.org/video/detail.cfm/12908/twsn_20101208_true_whispers_story_navajo